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Global evaluation of shark sanctuaries (2017) CA Ward-Paige, B Worm - published in Marine Policy. Open access here.

In this paper we report results from a global diver survey used to set baselines of shark populations, human use patterns, public awareness and threats in all 15 shark sanctuaries, and contrasted with observations from 23 non-sanctuary countries. These results suggest that shark sanctuaries, as seen through the lens of local experts, may be a helpful conservation tool but likely not sufficient in isolation. There is an urgent need for higher-resolution data on shark abundance, incidental catch, and markets to direct priority conservation needs and optimize the conservation benefits of existing and future shark sanctuaries. 




A global overview of shark sanctuary regulations and their impact on shark fisheries (2017) CA Ward-Paige, eOceans - published in Marine Policy. Open access here.

In this paper I review and summarize the details of existing shark sanctuary regulations, to compare and contrast across all 11 countries, to understand how effective shark sanctuaries may be for protecting sharks. Shark sanctuaries may lower mortality, but understanding the impact of these sanctuaries as a preventative measure is extremely difficult - just because they have not traditionally had high shark catches doesn't mean that would always be the case. One thing is clear, however, that shark bycatch needs to be addressed across the board. I also make the case for immediately implementing "program evaluation" - such as through eOceans snapshot & monitoring studies - to establish baselines and to understand the impact of the shark sanctuaries on sharks and the entire community, including humans. 




The role of the tourism industry.

Ward-Paige CA (2014) In: Techera EJ & Klein N (eds). Sharks: Conservation, Governance and Management. Earthscan. pp. 155-175.

pg. 158 - Box 8.1 Great Fiji Shark Count: tourism industry generated data used for establishing contemporary baselines and monitoring summarizes the status and contributions of divers in Fiji to eShark via the Great Fiji Shark Count in 2012 alone - when a total of 5,343 dives from 1,234 groups (1-18 dives per group) from 349 sites across Fiji. 




Global Population Trends and Human Use Patterns of Manta and Mobula Rays

Christine A. Ward-Paige, Brendal Davis, Boris Worm

eManta was a crowd-sourced survey of the world's expert scuba divers that was designed to evaluate the status of global manta ray populations. This study raised concern about Giant Manta and Devil Rays being wiped out by fisheries. Publication PDF 

CITES outcome- 2013 - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora





Global catches, exploitation rates, and rebuilding options for sharks

Worm B, Davis B, Kettemer L, Ward-Paige CA, Chapman D, Heithaus MR, Kessel ST, Gruber SH  (2013) . Marine Policy

Global shark fisheries reveals that at least 97 million sharks are killed each year and that mortality rates exceed their ability to reproduce, supporting evidence for declining populations.




Recovery potential and conservation options for elasmobranchs

Ward-Paige CA, Keith DM, Worm B, Lotze HK (2012) Journal of Fish Biology

Summary: 1) populations can recover - the earlier the better; 2) incidental fishing pressure can stall or prohibit recovery; and 3) management and conservation strategies must be multi-faceted in order to be successful.




Large-Scale Absence of Sharks on Reefs in the GreaterCaribbean: A Footprint of Human Pressures. 

Ward-Paige CA, Mora C, Lotze HK, Pattengill-Semmens C, McClenachan L, Arias-Castro E, Myers RA (2010) PLoS One

Relative lack of sharks on reefs reveals the extent of declines, unique condition of populations in Bahamas and Florida, and the potential for protective areas and management for maintaining shark populations. 


Other publications relevant to eOceans | eShark 

Ward-Paige CA (2014) The role of the tourism industry. In: Techera EJ & Klein N (eds). Sharks: Conservation, Governance and Management. Earthscan. pp. 155-175. LINK

Brunnschweiller J, Ward-Paige CA (2014) Shark fishing and tourism: a response to Cisneros- Montemayor et al. Oryx. LINK

Worm B, Davis B, Ketterner L, Ward-Paige CA, Chapman D, Heithaus M, Kessel S, Gruber S (2013) Global catches, exploitation rates, and rebuilding options for sharks. Marine Policy. 40:194-204. LINK

Chapman DD, Frisk MJ, Abercrombie DL, Safina C, Gruber SH, Babcock EA, Feldheim KA, Pikitch EK, Ward-Paige CA, Davis B, Kessel S, Heithaus M, Worm B (2013) Give shark sanctuaries a chance. Science. 339: 757. LINK

Ward-Paige CA, Keith D, Worm B, Lotze HK (2012) Recovery potential and conservation options for elasmobranchs.Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03246.x. LINK

Ward-Paige CA, Lotze HK (2011) Assessing the value of recreational divers for censusing elasmobranchs. PLoS ONE. 6(10): e25609, doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0025609. LINK

Lotze HK, Coll M, Magera AM, Ward-Paige CA, Airoldi L (2011) Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems.Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 10.1016/j.tree.2011.07.008 LINK

Ward-Paige CA, Pattengill-Semmens C, Myers RA, Lotze HK. (2010) Spatial and temporal trends in yellow stingray abundance: evidence from diver surveys. Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI 10.1007/s10641-010-9739-1. LINK

Ward-Paige C, Mora C, Lotze HK, Pattengill-Semmens C, McClenachan L, Arias-Castro E, Myers RA. (2010) Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011968. LINK Press Material


In the News:

Shark kills number 100 million annually, research says

CBBC - Children's BBC 
100 million sharks killed each year, say US scientists

International Business Times
Study Estimates 100 Million Sharks Killed Every Year

(U.K.) Express
Sharks in peril as 97 million are killed for soup

French Tribune
Sharks Heading Towards Extinction

National Geographic
Ocean Views

The Daily Beast
100 Million Sharks Killed Annually

Science Recorder
Study: Commercial fishing kills 100 million sharks each year

Latinos Post
100 Million Sharks Killed Each Year As Population Flags, According to New Study

World Science Report
More than 100 Million Sharks Killed every Year

Top News Arab Emirates
Sharks Closer To Extinction Because Of Commercial Killing

Sky News (U.K.)
Sharks: 'Hundred Million Are Killed A Year'

iTech Post
Endangered Sharks: Millions Killed Every Year, For Soup

Protection measures have failed to stop around 100 million sharks being fished every year and a third of all shark species are now threatened with extinction, conservationists say.

The Guardian
100 million sharks killed each year, say scientists

The Washington Post
Fishing is pushing sharks closer to extinction

Southern Fried Science 
Breaking News! "Most Comprehensive Estimate of Mortality": Between 63 and 273 Million Sharks Killed Each Year

Oceans Inc.
100 million sharks killed annually - Oceans inc report

Live Science
100 Million Sharks Killed Each Year, Study Finds

Ward-Paige CA (December 2011)
Divers contributing to shark and ray conservation: A researcher's perspective by Christine Ward-Paige. ProjectAWARE.org

X-ray Magazine: Article Full Magazine

2009 Year of the SharkPress Release

Undersea Journal: Declining Shark Populations. What can we do? by Christine Ward-Paige. Third Quarter, 2008. pp. 44-46

Scuba Diver Australasia: in press: by Ethan Daniels: http://www.scubadiveraa.com/

Dive Into Your Imagination: in press: by Annie Crawley: Article

MillionaireAsia: July 2008: pdf

The South Eastern Globe: Cambodia: August 2008: pdf

2Magazine: Thailand: August 2008: pdf

BYM Marine Environment News: April 2008: http://www.bymnews.com/news/newsDetails.php?id=25364

Wild Singapore: April 2008: http://wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com/2008/04/asia-dive-expo-christine-ward-paige.html

Scuba Globe: April 2008: http://www.scubaglobe.com/shows/adex-seminars.html

Scuba-Fish: April 2008: http://www.scuba-fish.com/aqualogy/global-shark-assessment

Kon-Tiki_Krabi: Thailand: April 2008: http://www.kontiki-krabi.com/default.aspx?pageId=38&newsId=20&page=2

Deeper Blue: United States: November 2007: http://www.deeperblue.net/article.php/816/60

Scuba Travel: November 2007: http://www.news.scubatravel.co.uk/2007_11_01_a.html